# NPC Pill #5: (P)izza =?= (NP)izza

Recently A. Amarilli (a3nm) posted a question on cs.stackexchange.com about the computational complexity of a Test Round problem of the Google France #Hash Code 2015: the Pizza Regina” problem (March 27th, 2015):

Definition [Pizza Regina problem]

Input: A grid $M$ with some marked squares, a threshold $T\in \mathbb{N}$, a maximal area $A \in\mathbb{N}$

Output: The largest possible total area of a set of disjoint rectangles with integer coordinates in $M$ such that each rectangle includes at least $T$ marked squares and each rectangle has area at most $A$.

The problem can be converted to a decision problem adding a parameter $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and asking:

Question: Does there exist a set of disjoint rectangles satisfying the conditions (each rectangle has integer coordinates in $M$, includes at least $T$ marked squares and has area at most $A$) whose total area is at least $k$ squares?

The problem is clearly in $\mathsf{NP}$, and after struggling a little bit I found that it is $\mathsf{NP}$-hard (so the Pizza Regina problem is $\mathsf{NP}$-complete). This is a sketch of a reduction from MONOTONE CUBIC PLANAR 1-3 SAT:

# NPC Pill #4: Square-Free Subset Product

While thinking about possible answers to the question “Listing of strongly NP-complete problems” I came up with this simple numeric strongly NP-complete problem:

[SQUARE-FREE SUBSET PRODUCT] Given $3N$ integers, find $N$ of them whose product is square free.

I didn’t find it anywhere, so it can be somewhat “original”.

# NPC Pill #3: Pick 3 or Pick 2 … another NP-complete 3DM variant

NPC Pills (NP-Complete pills) is a collection of some NP-completeness proofs that I posted on the Q&A sites cstheory.stackexchange.com and cs.stackexchange.com. Up to my knowledge they are original and some of them are not so trivial. At present, most of them are just sketches that contain the NP-hardness reduction idea, but for some of them I wrote (or I’m going to write) a more formal paper. If you are particularly interested in one of them write me an email.

# NPC Pill #3: Pick 3 or Pick 2 … another NP-complete 3DM variant

The following variant of the 3-Dimensional Matching problem (3DM) was posted on cstheory.stackexchange.com, a question and answer site for professional researchers in theoretical computer science and related fields:

Definition. 3-DIMENSIONAL MATCHING VARIANT
Input: Set $M \subseteq X \times Y \times Z$ where $X,Y,Z$ are disjoint sets; we call $M_{XY}= \{(x,y)\mid \exists z \text{ s.t. } (x,y,z)\in M \}$ the set of pairs of $X \times Y$ that appear in the triples of $M$, and $M_{XZ}= \{(x,z)\mid \exists y \text{ s.t. } (x,y,z)\in M \}$ the set of pairs of $X \times Z$ that appear in the triples of M.
Question: Does there exist a set $M’ \subseteq M \cup M_{XY} \cup M_{XZ}$ such that every element of $X \cup Y \cup Z$ is included in a triple or a pair of $M’$ exactly once?

Informally we want to build an exact cover of $X \cup Y \cup Z$ using the triples of $M$ or one of the two pairs $(x,y), (x,z)$ that are contained in a triple $(x,y,z) \in M$.

The problem is NP-complete, click the following link to download the technical report with the reduction (we also discuss some other variants of the problem).

If you have some comments or find some errors, contact me via email.

# NPC Pill #2: Minimal TSP Tour is coNP-Complete

NPC Pills (NP-Complete pills) is a collection of some NP-completeness proofs that I posted on the Q&A sites cstheory.stackexchange.com and cs.stackexchange.com. Up to my knowledge they are original and some of them are not so trivial. At present, most of them are just sketches that contain the NP-hardness reduction idea, but for some of them I wrote (or I’m going to write) a more formal paper. If you are particularly interested in one of them write me an email.

# NPC Pill #2: Minimal TSP Tour is coNP-Complete

The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is a well–known problem from graph theory: we are given $n$ cities and a nonnegative integer distance $d_{ij}$ between any two cities $i$ and $j$ (assume that the distances are symmetric, i.e. for all $i,j, d_{ij} = d_{ji}$). We are asked to find the shortest tour of the cities, that is a permutation $\pi$ of $[1..n]$ such that
$\sum_{i=1}^n d_{\pi(i),\pi(i+1)}$ (where $\pi(n+1) = \pi(n)$) is as small as possible. Its well-known NP-complete version is the following (TSPDECISION): If a nonnegative integer bound $B$ (the traveling salesman’s “budget”) is  given along with the distances, does there exist a tour of all the cities having total length no more than $B$?

But what about checking that a tour has effectively minimal length? We prove that the problem:

TSPMINDECISION: Given  a set of $n$ cities, the distance between all city pairs and a tour $T$, is T visiting each city exactly once and is T of minimal length?

is coNP-complete. As a secondary result we prove that given a graph $G$ and an Hamiltonian path, it is NP-complete to check if $G$ contains an Hamiltonian cycle as well.

UPADTE 2014-03-21: after publishing the proof on arXiv, it turned out that the same result was proved Papadimitriou and Steiglitz in [1] (see also [2] Section 19.9). Our proof is slightly different and it may be interesting in and of itself, so we decided not to withdraw the paper.

[1] Christos H. Papadimitriou and Kenneth Steiglitz. 1982. Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
[2] Christos H. Papadimitriou and Kenneth Steiglitz. On the Complexity of Local Search for the Traveling Salesman Problem. SIAM J. Comput., 6(1), 76–83, 1977.

# NPC Pill #1: Single Overlap RX3C

NPC Pills (NP-Complete pills) is a collection of some NP-completeness proofs that I posted on the Q&A sites cstheory.stackexchange.com and  cs.stackexchange.com. Up to my knowledge they are original and some of them are not so trivial. At present, most of them are just sketches that contain the NP-hardness reduction idea, but for some of them I wrote (or I’m going to write) a more formal paper. If you are particularly interested in one of them write me an email.

# NPC Pill #1: SINGLE OVERLAP RX3C

The EXACT COVER BY 3-SETS (X3C) problem is:

Instance: Set $X = \{x_1,x_2,…,x_{3q}\}$ and a collection $C = \{C_1,…,C_m\}$ of 3-element subsets of $X$.
Question: Does $C$ contain an exact cover for $X$, i.e. a subcollection $C’ \subseteq C$ such that every element of $X$ occurs in exactly one member of $C’$?

X3C is NP-complete [1], and as shown in [2] it remains NP-complete even if every element $x_i$ contained in exactly 3 subsets of $C$ (Restricted Exact Cover by 3-Sets – RX3C).

We proved that it remains NP-complete even if every pair of subsets in $C$  share at most one element; i.e. for all $i \neq j,\; | C_i \cap C_j | \leq 1$ and we call this restricted version SINGLE OVERLAP RX3C.

[1] M. R. Garey, David S. Johnson: Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W. H. Freeman 1979, ISBN 0-7167-1044-7.
[2] Teofilo F. Gonzalez: Clustering to Minimize the Maximum Intercluster Distance. Theor. Comput. Sci. 38: 293-306 (1985).