It is well known that $\text{Primes}= \{ a^p \mid p \text{ is prime}\}$ is not regular. The standard proof uses the pumping lemma for regular languages, but you can also use Parikh’s theorem or Myhill-Nerode theorem: see this question on cs.stackexchange.com. I tried to figure out another way to prove it, and came out with an alternate proof that uses a bit of number theory and Busy Beavers.

First of all: **Theorem 1** (Prime gap theorem). There are gaps between primes that are arbitrarily large.